Herding Hill? or Gola Konda in the language of Telugu people living in the state of Andhra Pradesh has an interesting history. In 1143, on the hill of Mangalavara, one podpasok stumbled upon an amazing statue of a deity. The news quickly spread and reached King Kakatya, who ruled at the time. The king urgently ordered to build a clay fort around the holy place.
200 years later, in 1364, the rulers of the Bahamini dynasty seized the fortress. Starting from 1507, during the rule of the Qutub Shahi dynasty, for 62 years the fort was constantly expanding, gradually turning into a granite fortress, stretching around more than 5 kilometers. All these years, the fort has been a silent witness to many historical events. Only one kings was replaced during this time three. The reign of the great Qutub Shahi dynasty in Golconda ended in 1687, when the fort was conquered by the Magal emperor Aurangazeb, who almost completely destroyed it and left only a pile of pitiful ruins.
Golkonda consists of four separate fortresses, which are interconnected by a 10-kilometer wall with 87 circular bastions. Some of them still have cannons, eight gates, four lifting bridges, royal apartments and halls, temples, mosques, warehouses and stables.
The lowest of the fortresses is the extreme fortress in the southeastern side of the fort, which Fateh Darvaz gate leads to (or Victory Gate, so named after the triumphal march of Aurangazeb), decorated with huge iron spikes (to protect against the attacks of war elephants). Around Fateh Darvaz you can conduct an amazing experiment that characterizes the wonders of the engineers who built Golconda. If you clap your hands while standing in a certain place under the dome at the entrance to the gate, the clap will be well heard in the hall of Bala Hisar, the highest point of the fortress almost a kilometer away. Previously, this trick was used to warn residents in case of danger, although now it is just fun entertainment for visitors to the fort.
The most impressive gate still is Balahisar Darvaza. The mythical beasts and lions on the panels framing the wall were supposed to protect the fort. From the gate Balahizar Darvaza begins a staircase of 380 stone steps leading upwards.
The main buildings are located one behind the other and are separate rooms that include public and administrative, as well as royal chambers and halls.
In the fortress there is also a Hindu temple belonging to the Kakatia period, carved in a huge stone boulder. On the white facade of the building is a colorful fresco depicting the goddess Kali.
There is also a mosque built by Taramati in the fort. It is interesting by another engineering marvel of those times. Unusual clay pipes on the wall - is nothing like a kind of plumbing. Near the mosque there is a vast courtyard that extends to the ramparts, offering an impressive view of the landscapes that stretch for many kilometers around.
The staircase, consisting of 380 steps, is completed by the posh pavilion Balahisar Baradari. This three-story building, decorated with twelve magnificent arches, was used as a ceremonial hall. On the upper terrace there is a large stone throne. In Baradari there is another engineering miracle - a natural air conditioner, which is a hole in a double wall that sucks in air and releases it under the pressure that forms in the chambers of the wall.
A narrow, steep staircase descends from Baradari leading to the Rani Mahal palace, where the harem was located. Rani Mahal was built on massive stone platforms and has high ceilings and walls decorated with decorative cornices, niches and altans with Persian patterns. Once the vaulted halls of Rani Mahal were supported by tall wooden columns with beautiful carvings, but these days they have not survived.
In Golconde, there are secret underground tunnels leading to one of the places at the foot of the hill. Approximately one kilometer from the outer wall of Golconda are the tombs of the rulers of the Kutub Shahi clan, made in Islamic style and surrounded by picturesque gardens.
Now the fort of Golconda is an ancient historical monument, it is protected and supported by the state. Every year it is visited by many tourists who leave this place with a huge number of unforgettable impressions. In addition to amazing buildings, magnificent architecture and engineering wonders, the Golkonda fort is one of the few monuments in India where you can see an amazing show of sound and visual effects telling the long and colorful history of the ancient structure.