If you think about the origin of words that seem to have the opposite meaning, you can find a lot in common in various areas of our life. The ability to draw analogies is a cognitive lesson, at least, develops mental abilities. Of course, it is possible to live without them, but still - a school for some reason exists!
The pyramid, the ancient Egyptian structure, placed as a symbol of longevity and strength on a one-dollar bill, goes back to the ancient Greek word "pyramis", which means wheat flour baked in the shape of a pyramid. Have you guessed how the pyramid comes into contact with a hot dog, that is, a “hot dog”? We are talking about baking, that is, cooking, but where are the animals - dogs? In American slang, dogs were called sausage; at the end of the 19th century, dog meat was added to sausage meat. It turns out that we have connected several disciplines at once: architecture, biology, technology of food production, history.
In this essay, I reflect on the history of the dwelling and, using the etymology, I draw unexpected conclusions for myself. For me, it turned out to be news that modern wooden houses evolved from a dugout, and the Russian stove is not at all Russian in origin ... But let's learn in order.
The history of the ancient dwelling inspired me from school. I enjoyed reading about how primitive people built houses. Of course, they took an example from the animal world.
I thought about philosophy - if you can apply this concept to our smaller brothers - the very process of building “individual housing”.
Mammals build nests, burrows and other shelters to continue the genus. Sometimes to ensure security, and maybe from the desire for comfort. If you look at an orangutan, comfortably nestled in a nest that he arranged quite oddly, you can agree with the assumption that it is convenient and pleasant to indulge in dreams in such a den! The nests of field mice on the stalks of cereals also look cozy: some kind of straw balls on sticks.
According to the testimony of ornithologists, during the construction of a dwelling some birds show amazing qualities of a bird's soul. “On the roof of a house in Argentina, a pair of stove-seters (cheerful thrush-sized birds announcing Argentine surroundings with cheerful, sonorous roulades) built a nest. One day, the female fell into a mousetrap, and her legs were smashed. Breaking free, she with difficulty flew to the nest and died there. The male circled around the nest for several days, mourning his girlfriend, and then disappeared. Two days later he appeared again, accompanied by another female. They immediately set to work and immured the entrance to the old nest, where the remains of the dead bird lay. On this sarcophagus, they built a new dwelling in which they safely bred offspring. ” (J. Darrell).
And what about us, humans? They say: the place of women at the hearth. A Bedouin who has several wives is obliged to provide each wife with a separate tent. It turns out that the statement that a woman can be tied only with the help of a hearth, had the right to exist in ancient times.
Number One Dwelling - Cave
Scientists have long assumed that the initial centers of human appearance on earth were distributed in countries with a warm climate. Recent studies have shown that the birthplace of modern man is a continent not only with a “warm climate”, but even with a hot one. In central Africa, when the first people appeared, most likely there was no need to fight the frost, wrap up in furs and build yurts. Our ancestors needed shelter, mainly from rains, storms, excessive heat, from dangerous beasts and from some of their own kind.
Powerful limestone outcrops were exposed on the surface of the earth. In this rock, the circulation of groundwater washed out voids or caves, sometimes stretching deep into the rock for many kilometers. The first to appreciate such "apartments" animals. Following their example, people began to use caves for housing. Sometimes whole genera or tribes settled the passages in the caves. So there were "cave cities".
The world famous “country of beautiful horses” - cave Cappadocia in Turkey - is impressive. The cascades and terraces of Pamukkale, a fairy-tale castle made of white, like cotton wool, tufa, became objects of profitable tourism, and until recently people lived there.
The dwelling in the cave was solid, and at night, with bonfires at the entrance, it was protected from the attack of wild animals. Calcareous formations and thick clayey sandstones are relatively soft. Already in the Stone Age, the ax was hewn, the internal walls, arches and the floor of the caves were leveled for convenience.
Stone Age people didn’t care about the “compaction”, like our grandparents in the Soviet era. On the contrary, due to the softness of the "building material", when needed, the living space was slightly expanded.
Location of some cave villages It was chosen so well that subsequent generations did not leave this housing.
The cave was a holy place, the dying and resurrecting gods were born in a cave. Monasteries and monasteries used the cave from time immemorial. Many caves have been preserved in Salacik (Crimea) and right there in Chufut-Kala. Some of the caves were occupied by the premises of the Assumption monastery, others - extensive, well-processed inside the cave - for many centuries were part of the Khazar-Karaite city of Kirkor, inhabited until the 18th century.
Not far from Bakhchisarai, along the valley of the Kachi River, the cave city of Kachikalen was located, with beautifully decorated inside rooms that contained a large population of Cimmerians and the Scythian brand. In the south-west of Bakhchisarai were the famous huge cave cities with stone "furniture" of the colonization times from Hellas. Near Simferopol, the cave city of Bakla, once inhabited by the Greeks, is the most important landmark of the Crimea. The same cave settlements are known for housing in varying degrees, in many places of Turkestan, in eastern India, Mesopotamia, Syria, Tunisia, Tripoli, southern parts of the United States, France (Champagny, Loire and Garonne), Italy, Israel. .
According to numerous testimonies, cave wanderers lived in natural underground structures until the early 20th century. Back in the thirties of the last century, man lived in caves as many, many centuries ago. In Italy, the 1927 census indicated that there were 37,000 residential caves in the country with a population of over 100,000! In the twenties, the premises of the Inkerman monastery hostel were located in the limestones near Sevastopol.
Sevastopol is an ancient underground city that keeps centuries-old secrets and secrets. Since its inception, it has been considered a defensive city, and therefore it harbors underground tunnels, caves, labyrinths, and bomb shelters. In early July 1942, the casemates of the 35th Battery and the caves of Cape Chersonese witnessed one of the most difficult pages of the defense of Sevastopol.
In the Chelyabinsk region, some Russian "marginals" and in our time are hiding in caves. Abroad preserved more comfortable, illuminated by electricity, ancient caves, where they live quite wealthy people who do not like our homeless.
The second part of the article will tell about "houses in the trees."
(The photos of Lia Usmanova were used as illustrations.)