The Black Sea has long inspired poets and artists, writers and musicians. Maximilian Voloshin, Edward Bagritsky, Konstantin Paustovsky, Mikhail Bulgakov, Valentin Kataev, Alexander Green, Ivan Aivazovsky are names that are forever associated with the Black Sea. Such famous films as Amphibian Man, Diamond Hand, Scarlet Sails, Ivan Vasilyevich Changing Profession, Assa were shot on the shores of this sea. The most famous film, shot on the Black Sea coast, is the film “The Battleship Potemkin” by Sergei Eisenstein.
The Black Sea is the inland sea of the Atlantic Ocean, connected by the Bosphorus and the Kerch Straits with the Marmara and Azov Seas, respectively. The average depth is 1300 meters, in some places it can reach 2,200 meters. The area of the Black Sea is approximately 420 thousand square meters. km The name of the sea comes from the Turkic "Kara-Deniz" (literally "Black Sea"). Ancient navigators noticed that sea water changes its color during storms, becoming almost black. In addition, these words can also be translated as “Bad Sea”, “Dangerous Sea”.
The Black Sea is famous for the fact that it almost completely lacks life at a depth of more than 200 meters (with the exception of anaerobic bacteria). This is due to the huge amount of hydrogen sulfide in the Black Sea. The source of hydrogen sulfide in water is due to the fact that about 8 thousand years ago there was a fresh Novoevksinsky lake on the site of the Black Sea. After a strong earthquake connecting this lake with the Mediterranean Sea (through the Bosphorus Strait), a huge number of freshwater animals and plants died, which caused a glut of Black Sea waters with hydrogen sulfide. Sometimes the Black Sea is called the “sea of the dead”.
Nevertheless, a huge number of marine animals is found in the surface waters of the Black Sea: dolphins and bottle-nosed dolphins, white-seal seal, various fish (goby, haddock, quark shark, flounder, hamsa, mackerel, hake), crabs, rapana, jellyfish, sponges , mussels - only 2.5 thousand different species.
Historically, the Black Sea was a densely populated area. Even in ancient times, the Greeks settled in these parts, the Argonauts floated on these waters in search of the Golden Fleece, on the shores of the Black Sea was the kingdom of the famous king Mithridates. Later the Romans and Byzantines came to these places, then the Genoese, the Turks, the Tatars.
Over the past thirty years there has been a serious danger of the destruction of the unique natural resources of the Black Sea, and October 31, 1996 in Istanbul, at the conference of ministers of the Black Sea countries, the Strategic Action Plan for the Protection of the Black Sea was signed. The ministers of environmental protection of six countries - Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Turkey, Georgia and Romania participated in signing the plan. Since October 31, it has become Black Sea Day.
On this day in the coastal countries, events and actions are held, the purpose of which is to draw public attention to the problems of the Black Sea, such as:
- severe pollution of rivers flowing into the sea, especially with chemical fertilizers from the fields, which causes an abundant "flowering" of the sea;
- pollution of the water surface with oil and oil products;
- industrial fishing in unlimited quantities, which again leads to a change in the natural balance of marine flora and fauna;
- pollution of the waters of the Black Sea with human waste - insufficiently treated wastewater.
Among the above-mentioned events, for example, the Adjara Regional Environmental and Natural Resources Protection Service held a seminar, exhibitions and a concert in Batumi; in Sochi, green activists organized a mass campaign to clean the coast from debris; in Odessa, an international symposium "Environmental Problems of the Black Sea" was held; in the Crimea, museum exhibitions and cultural, theatrical performances are devoted to the Day of the Black Sea.
It is hoped that the joint efforts of people living on the shores of the Black Sea will help to preserve this gentle and warm sea for future generations so that our children and grandchildren, like the characters of the Smuggler by Eduard Bagritsky, could
«... singing, gasping,
On the terrible expanse:
“Ay, the Black Sea,