Kasimov: what is known about him and what remains to be learned?

1152 year - on the banks of the Oka at the behest of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, the first fortress was laid. It was called Gorodets Meshchersky. The tribes of the Meshcher and Mordovians lived there, and the Slavs also lived there.

The version that Alexander Nevsky died there is connected with the name Gorodets. He returned from the Horde in 1263, fell ill, took the veil and died. Already from here the body of the prince was transported to Suzdal, for burial. Like it or not - maybe it will be found out someday.

Gorodets burned during raids, rebuilt again. And in 1446, Vasily the Dark granted Tatar prince Kasim Nizova Gorodets. Why such a gift - continue to argue. But why this particular place is understandable. After all, this is not only on the road to Murom (“along the Murom road”), this place is a transit point on the way to the Golden Horde.

Kasim and his brother helped the tsar in military affairs, and since then, a specific Tatar khanate, the city of Kasimov, has appeared right next to Moscow. The Khan Palace and a mosque, then stone mausoleums, appeared on the Tatar mountain in Kasimov. But there are enough disputes and speculations about the origin of this state formation. The issue is important and the disputes will not subside for a long time. Legends and mysteries associated with the Kasimov khanate are, indeed, numerous.

It is known that since 1452 both Tatars and Russians lived together in Kasimov. Some hurried to the temple, others to the mosque. They shared culinary recipes, the secrets of crafts, and life flowed peacefully.

Here the famous Tatar graduate Queen Suyumbike (Sumbek, Syuyun-Bike, in different spellings). And nicknamed the queen for the beauty of "krasnosolnechnoy." There are also many legends associated with it, which are now difficult to understand. In Kazan there is the Syuyumbike Tower, according to one of the legends, the tsarina rushed down, but, as it is written in the chronicles: “The tsarina wanted to kill herself, but could not, for her guardian was firmly on the shore”. But the legend is alive, and the Tower is tilted, almost like the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and even higher. And historians argue which period of time this watch tower belongs to.

However, there is a lot of mystery here. Even before the capture of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible, residents offered him a compromise. For this it was necessary that Syuyumbike married Kasimov's Khan Shah-Ali. But the tsarina was already married to the younger brother of the Kasimov shah Jan Ali, and he was killed in her bedroom. Syuyumbike immediately became the beloved wife of the Crimean Khan Safa-Giray and bore him a long-awaited heir. And she tried to poison her new fiancé, the Kasimov khan. It was after this that they were issued to Moscow governors.

She lived in the Kremlin, at the royal court, her father (the Nogai Murza Yusuf) could not help her. Nevertheless, Shah-Ali took her as his wife, took her to Kasimov, but something did not work out, and "he did not agree to sleep with her ...". Maybe he remembered the shah that they tried to poison him, or maybe he already had a beloved wife. The mausoleum of the Shah himself in Kasimov has been preserved, but nobody knows where Syuyumbike is buried.

Son Suyumbike stayed at the Moscow court. He was baptized, received the name Alexander (Alexander Safagireevich), studied the Russian language. But he died early. Tsarevich was buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin.

The English Wikipedia states that the direct descendant of Syuyumbike was Prince Felix Yusupov. The one who participated in the murder of Rasputin. But, as is known, the tsarina had an only son-heir - Utemesh-Girey. And he died at the age of 17.

What to believe is not clear. Probably, the fact that the story - a difficult and confusing thing. And it will periodically confuse and complicate it in accordance with what is considered appropriate at the moment. And even if the riddles remain - also nothing terrible.

But the Kasimov story on Syuyumbike does not end there. Kasimov khan was Simeon Bekbulatovich (Semyon Bekbulatovich Kasimovsky, before baptism - Sain-Bulat khan), a descendant of the khans of the Golden Horde. But formally - he was the Tsar of Russia. True, Simeon stayed in Moscow for only 11 months, scaring the boyars, after which he became the Prince of Tver. The exact reasons for this unusual “political masquerade” have not yet been clarified - there are disputes. But Simeon Bekbulatovich - a figure in Russian history, of course, interesting.

By the end of the 17th century, the kasimov khans' family began to fade away. The last Khansha, Fatma-Sultan-Seitovna, is said to have wanted to convert to Christianity. By virtue of which she was strangled by the courtiers. And in 1681 the city went to the treasury.

But long before that, another sad "woman" story happened here. In 1647, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich decided to marry and chose Euthymia (sometimes they write Afimyu) Vsevolozhsk, the daughter of Kasimovsk governor Fedor (Raf) Vsevolozhsk. It was she, the 18-year-old king, held out a ring and a scarf. However, for some unknown reason, at the betrothal ceremony, Euphemia fainted. Witnesses wrote that the other rejected girls "put it on her poison." There was a version about the tutor of the tsar, but the essence remains: the royal darling allegedly had a “depressed sickness”, respectively, and the wedding was canceled. The governor and his family were exiled to Siberia, then the family returned without a governor to Kasimov, where Euphemia (the “wrecked” bride) died around 1657. At the same time, she rejected all other suitors, but saved the royal gifts. This story is described in the novel by Vsevolod Solovyov "Kasimov's Bride" (V. Soloviev - the son of historian S. Soloviev and author of historical novels).

And in Kasimov lies the ashes of Balakirev's jester. Balakirev Ivan Alekseevich (1699−1763 years) - the court jester of Peter the Great with Neshutovskoy fate (there is a wonderful play by G. Gorin, on which not less remarkable play "Jester Balakirev" was staged). The jester was severely beaten with batogs after his role in the love correspondence between Catherine (Peter's wife) and the chamberlain Mons became clear. The jester was exiled, but then forgiven. He was granted an estate in Kasimov (and, formerly, a Khan's possession), where he lived until his death, there was a chud, there are stories of his contemporaries. But where his grave is is also unknown.

There are Russian antiquities in Kasimov, but they are younger than Tatar. The oldest Orthodox church in the city, the Epiphany, was built in 1700. And the central square of the city is decorated with the solemn Ascension Cathedral (1862) by architect Voronikhin. There are other temples.

But by the XIX century Kasimov flourished as a major merchant city. This is about him sung Varlamov in the Song of the Robber (verses by A. Veltman):

Time! Lead you to my beloved horse
Hold tight by the bridle;
Traveling with goods from Kasimov
Murom forest merchants ...

Magnificent merchant mansions and estates appeared in the city (and in these mansions they also find a lot of unusual and interesting things now). They even speak about the special architecture of Kasimov. A shopping arcade is one of the main attractions.

And in the 20th century, the Kasimov boy Vladimir Aksenov became an astronaut who twice flew into space. And this is no longer a mystery or a miracle. Although - how to say.

Watch the video: 1812. Napoleonic Wars in Russia - Episode 3. Documentary Film. StarMedia. English Subtitles (September 2019).

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