What do we know about the architecture of Finnish cities? About Prokop from Kuopio

Prokop came, boiling dill,
And when Prokop boils dill.
And Prokop left, boiling dill,
And without Prokop dill boils.

And it was in the same town, where Prokop came to trade in hardware, fabrics and earthen toys. Residents of this city perfectly prepared different dishes, fragrant in the whole street. Poor Prokop always felt like a stranger. So he died without trying the soup with the fresh smell of dill. At the funeral neighbors cooked soup, which was called "Prokopin chowder" in honor of the deceased. Meanwhile, the King drove by, wanted to taste a fragrant dish. He liked it so much that the foreign king repeated the wonderful words: “Procopio-Kuopio”. Since then, the subjects of the king began to call that place Kuopio.

This amusing tale has a completely scientific base: in Karelia (the city of Kuopio is considered the administrative center of the province of North Savo, which represents Finnish Karelia) our peddlers have long been. According to one of the versions of Finnish historians, the name of the city of Kuopio comes from the name of the merchant Procopius, who, as we know, loved dill very much.

Influence of St. Petersburg

After the Russian-Swedish war of 1808–1809 Finland was annexed to Russia, for more than a hundred years the Grand Duchy was part of the empire. From the architecture of the era of King Gustav refused, samples were borrowed from the east, mainly from St. Petersburg. Helsinki played a key role in the construction of houses in the classical Empire style, the architecture of this city influenced both rural and urban buildings in Finland. Low symmetrical wooden houses appeared in Kuopio. Horizontal boards in the casing, windows filled with a binding of six glass cells, various types of decorative carving became fashionable.

In the 19th century, along with the Empire style, the asymmetrical Swiss style penetrated the city’s architecture, which preferred carving with a sheet pattern made with the help of a figure saw. At the end of the 19th century, Art Nouveau buildings appeared. Classic styles have found a new life, neo-Renaissance began to dominate the construction of wooden buildings. This refers to the so-called styles of carpentry sculpture. In the 1880s, stone houses began to appear in Kuopio, resembling "profitable" Petersburg houses. The city center received a new image in the form of a stone heart or a “stone bag”.

The facades of multi-storey residential buildings facing the street acquired the most varied processing. The architects of the city sought to apply different styles. Unlike St. Petersburg, which was notable for endless variants of decorative stucco motifs during this period, Finnish architecture still had a more uniform, neutral face.

The location of the buildings within the narrow streets did not allow the architects to create "imperial" in the scope of the composition. The streets of Finnish cities still resemble long corridors bounded on both sides by continuous rows of stone walls. The facades are decorated with ingenious advertising, and the narrow aisles between the houses - a kind of urban sculpture.

The interiors of Finnish apartments, whose owners belonged to the upper class, were distinguished by overloaded furniture and randomness, the different types of household items. On the walls were hung paintings, as a rule, Finnish artists, in lush frames. Finnish burghers, unlike the Russian nobility or the bourgeoisie, preferred to acquire landscapes with familiar views.

In Kuopio, there were many Russian merchants who made their own adjustments to local customs. The photograph from the museum in Rautalampi (a town near Kuopio) shows a living room in which a portrait of the hostess hangs in a prominent place, and not some dull rocky landscape. Buffets, chairs, armchairs and sofas were often ordered from St. Petersburg. Tables were covered with tablecloths. Copper samovars were exhibited on the tables and in the apartments of the Finnish city of Kuopio. Doors and windows were framed with curtains of dense materials with folds and tassels. The walls were covered with wallpaper with different patterns - stripes and colors.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, builders preferred the style of art nouveau or modern, at this time national romance was popular. Samples were taken from the architecture of the Middle Ages, and Karelian motifs were used. The upper parts of the windows were completed with arched lintels, the facade was decorated with small rectangles, towers and bay windows were built, architects were fond of decorative skins of pebbles and logs. Stylization under the nature intertwined with exotic motifs.

In the 1920s, a restrained atmosphere of classicism prevailed, and there was a tendency to paint buildings in neutral pale colors. The cities of eastern Finland remained in such a bright color until the end of the 1960s, until a revolution in architecture occurred.

Log houses have long given way to frame structures. It seemed that the wooden buildings had disappeared forever from the main road of Finnish architecture. In the last decades of the twentieth century, the time of technological development in construction, has won the trend of using individual blocks, including in individual construction.

Practicality and functionality, representing the style of functionalism, have become part of the construction of residential buildings. "House-boxes" with block designs appeared in the urban landscape. The simplified construction style continued with the exception of a short period of decorative 1980s until today. True, outside the city there is an intensive construction of wooden cottages, which are not going to leave their native northern landscapes.

Watch the video: Why is Finland building an underground city? (September 2019).

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