Three, three flew,
The horses in the top three are white.
And in the sleigh sits the queen
Belokosa, white face.
I waved my sleeve -
Everything was covered with silver
- look how beautifully winter is described in this riddle.
Winter in the imagination of our distant ancestors appeared as bolshaha, that is, a portly, prominent, strong woman, a real mistress, who knows a lot about her business. And her clothes were appropriate: a warm bear coat, boots with wolf fur, and an elegant headdress - kika.
Winter commanded snow and snowdrifts, blizzards and blizzards, winds and severe frosts, she presented herself as a harsh mistress.
“Winter will ask what is in store in summer”- says an old Russian proverb. And indeed, it was necessary to prepare thoroughly for the winter- “priberich”, because "One day of summer feeds all winter". Fruits, vegetables, herbs, berries and mushrooms harvested in summer were not only a real delicacy, but also an irreplaceable remedy in the case of ailments.
Interesting in the representation of the Russian people and the image frost. Folklore mentions Morozko, Moroz-Treskun and Studeny, which has a mysterious powerful force. They even said: "Frost and iron tears, and the bird hits on the fly." But favorite winter fun - sleigh rides - It was on frosty days, when the bright sun shines on the fields and forests decorated with silver, and the squeaky snow at your feet calls for a fun walk!
There is a proverb: "In the winter cold - every young". And in fact, everyone knows how the winter spirit invigorates, reddens the cheeks and adds frost to the eyes. The most severe frosts, according to popular observations, came after January 24, the day of Fedosia-spring, and were called “hudoseyami”: "Frosts-hudosey feast with evil spirits". It was then that the owners were worried about livestock, making sure that it was warm and satisfying.
Russian people have always respected the snow: “Thank you, frost for bringing snow”, “Snow drifts in the fields - grain harvest in the bins”, “The snow is cold, and shelters from the cold”. In the old days, people in the know called snow peasant wealth and rejoiced if high snow drifts reliably covered crops from the cold. After all "If the field is smooth in winter, then it will be smooth in the bottom of the barrel".
And when outside the window, in the words of Sergei Yesenin, “Blizzards make funny spinning wheels” and frost is raging, the villagers of olden days were arranging traditional comfortable in Russia gatherings. On long winter evenings, both old and young gathered in the same house.
The village youth loved coming to some old lady. The girls brought handicrafts with them: they embroidered, woven, sewed, spun, knitted. Useful lesson was accompanied by songs, sayings and jokes. As the saying goes, "fun, fun and spin." Representatives of the older generation told young people about their lives, instructive stories about the mysterious forces of nature and the wonders of Russian saints.
So in a warm hut, at the puffing samovar, quietly and simply passed intimate conversations, the youth adopted the experience of their parents, listened to advice. Without any TVs and the Internet, the youth took over the basics of worldly wisdom, assimilated family values.
In addition, the winter in Russia was a favorite wedding day. "From Baptism to Maslenitsa - the time of weddings", - the saying goes.
Finally, it was for the winter that dear hearts holidays: New Year, Christmas, Baptism, Candlemas, Maslenitsa. With each of these holidays, the Russian people are associated with many rituals and will. On Christmas evenings, the youth enjoyed themselves from the heart, arranging holiday carols and divination.
Especially carefully and assiduously prepared for the great Orthodox holidays. The old Russian traditions, connected, for example, with the preparation of Christmas kutya or the consecration of water on the night of Baptism, have been preserved to this day. By the holidays, they always slaughtered a pig, often village men went hunting in the woods. The prey, a boar or an elk, was defiantly carried on a rag, and the pre-holiday mood prevailed in the village. So in winter the fun in the Russian villages almost did not stop.
However, in fasting days, noisy fun and songs were strictly forbidden. The end of December was considered time. the struggle of light and darkness. After December 25, the solstice, it was believed that the sun turns for the summer, and winter for the frost, the day begins to increase by a “chicken stride”. The old men said that the evil spirit is angry at this and these days poses a great danger to both people and domestic animals.
In the “terrible evenings” (from January 13 to 19), when evil spirits want to “sweep the sun”, people tried not to leave their homes at all and not to go out without much need. The custom to drive the devil and the witch from the village was widespread. The men made bonfires, and around them they organized merry festivities in order to drive away the dark forces and strengthen their health.
The old names of the winter months are filled with popular wisdom: December - “Cold”, “snow”, “frowning”, “wind ring”, “lyutovy”, “gates of winter”, January - “Prosinets”, “student”, “re-wintering”, “fracture of winter”, February - “Sechen”, “snow”, “bokogrey”, “lute”. These ancient names show how attentively the people followed the slightest changes in nature and weather. Almost every day something in the national calendar meant something. In the snow, ice, wind, frost, clouds, sun, stars, animal behavior, our ancestors predicted what the harvest would be, whether the spring would come soon, whether the summer would be hot.
As the saying goes, "The old adage is not spoken by". And today we all would do well to learn "To live with the mind and blessing of fathers and grandfathers", just like them, love nature and be able to enjoy every day.
Happy winter to you!