In the Russian annals of the middle of the XVI century there are references to the Pyatigorsk Circassians. In more detail, the Hot Mountain, famous for the heroes of Ilf and Petrov Proval and the Tambukan Lake, the healing mud of which doctors of the whole South of Russia are currently using, was described in 1773 by the Russian scientist Guldenstedt.
In 1774, Kabarda, together with Pyatigorsk, was ceded to Russia under the Kuchuk-Kaynardzhi peace treaty. Six years later, four kilometers from Mashuk Mountain, on the banks of the Podkumok River, a small Constantinogorsk fortress was erected, one of the outposts of the Azov-Mozdok fortified line. Nearby the settlement gradually grew, where soldiers who served their time settled. Soldiers of the 16th Egersky regiment who occupied Constantinogorsk fortress paid attention to the hot mineral waters of Mashuk mountain.
In 1863, the Russian Balneological Society was established in Pyatigorsk. It became the first scientifically practical organization in Russia that dealt with research and the use of natural healing factors. The railway line from Rostov-on-Don to Vladikavkaz, built in 1875, contributed to the sharply increased popularity of the resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters region. Balneological resort Pyatigorsk received a new impetus to development. Today it is the second largest city of the Stavropol Territory.
Pyatigorsk is called not only a city of health, but also a city-museum. After all, there are about 100 monuments of history, culture and architecture, it is among the historical cities of Russia. Among the many legends of olden times, there is one that provides Pyatigorsk with a constant influx of tourists. His name is Mikhail Lermontov ...
Ostap Bender trails
Excursion to Pyatigorsk in any city in the region of the Caucasian Mineral Waters is as popular as ours - tours to Krasnaya Polyana or for 33 waterfalls in the aul Kichmay. But you are unlikely to be shown something that really touches your soul, because the excursion tour points are as fresh as the bread of a poor man: the place of Lermontov and Martynov’s duel, the poet’s grave, which was reburied long ago in Tarkhany, the narzan gallery. My advice - enjoy it yourself, the benefit of the train go hourly from early morning until late at night.
Seventy percent of the passengers of the train, students who get to the university from the surrounding settlements. There are many vacationers who, after lunch, go to their health resort to get acquainted with other sights of the region. And an indispensable attribute, which has almost become a thing of the past in Sochi, is the sellers of all sorts of things. Advertise a thousand little things "for cheap" will be along the entire route, and in half an hour you get used to the obtrusive vociferous voice just as you do with "Be careful, the doors are closing."
Even if you have never been to Pyatigorsk, it’s very easy to navigate. First we go to Failure - there will be an occasion to remember the unforgettable Ostap Bender (by the way, he still collects funds for repairs, though now in the form of a bronze statue) and admire the panorama of Pyatigorsk and the surrounding remaining mountains - Yutsy, Hot, Beshtau. In winter, it is especially good. On a sunny day, if you're lucky, you can see the snow-white hats of Elbrus.
Go to Proval - a natural lake in the depths of the Mashuk slope - bus no. 1 will take you directly from the station. A short tunnel, carved out of the rock by hand, will take you to the emerald-colored water surface.
The passage to the lake is forcibly withdrawn by the lattice: as in the Matsesta caves, hydrogen sulfide comes to the surface here, excessive concentration of which can cause indisposition or even paralysis of the respiratory center. People knew about the healing properties of sulfuric water for a long time: as early as 1837, the afflicted were lowered into the lake on ropes in special baskets with the help of a complex system of blocks. Bathing in the lake was terminated only in 1888, with the organization of several bathing complexes in Pyatigorsk.
One of them, Yermolovskiye Baths, is located in the very heart of the resort on the Flower Garden Boulevard, opposite the Narzan Gallery. The stone building built in the beginning of the 20th century is adjacent to the carved wooden Lermontov Gallery, the most popular exhibition complex in Pyatigorsk.
Leisurely walk along the boulevard can take all day. It is especially beautiful in spring, when hundreds of scarlet and yellow tulips bloom here, but in winter, too, strict geometry and desertion soothe.
Moon landscapes of Pyatigorsk
From the boulevard you can climb into the light arbor - "Aeolian Harp". In the stone floor of the rotunda in the nineteenth century a wooden case with two harps was mounted. A wind vane on the dome of the arbor, turning under the action of the wind, set in motion a device that touched the strings — melodious sounds were heard. That is why the gazebo and received the name "Aeolian Harp." Remember "Princess Mary":
“On the steep cliff, where the pavilion, called the Eolian harp, was built, lovers of species stuck out and pointed the telescope at Elbrus”?
This is another outlook, which in the mountainous Pyatigorsk with a dozen. But undoubtedly, the best review opens from the top of Mashuk. In total for two hundred rubles on it you will be lifted by a cable car of a pendular cable car. Some time ago, exactly such red-bellied barrels on a leg lifted hundreds of tourists to the upper part of the Arboretum Park, but now the modern roomy wagons with bright symbols have replaced the old slayers. Therefore, a bright acquaintance with the inscription "Mashuk" definitely brought me back to my childhood memories.
A few minutes of flight along a pine forest - and you are at a height of a thousand meters above sea level. On the left stands the five-headed bulk of Beshtau, which is five hundred meters higher. Here, on Mashuk, there is a regional television broadcasting station, the only one in all of Stavropol. In this plus the flat areas - a steady signal of the Mashuk repeater extends hundreds of kilometers around. From the foot of the mountain, winding serpentine leads to the top, but it is safer to walk here when the snow melts.
The landscape stretching under your feet is striking in slightly faded tones and unearthly relief. The geometry of the mountain peaks and the symbolism of the clouds, the strict lines of residential development and the ever-changing shape of misty patches ... All this makes watching the changeable reality for hours. Here, time flies, and even subzero temperature is felt only with gusts of wind. But here with Beshtau crawling snow cloud. This is a clear sign that it's time to go down.
Muse under the reed roof
The winding streets are full of sanatoriums and houses whose windows grow into the ground every year. Now everyone can cheaply rent a room or a separate apartment in any of them, the volume that attracted. But if you think that apartment renderers appeared on the resorts of Russia in the Soviet era, you are mistaken. Demand always gave rise to supply, and in the 19th century Caucasus, traditionally apartments were rented to officers. Mikhail Lermontov lodged in one of these houses, exiled to the Caucasus for the poem “The Poet's Death”.
An adobe house under a reed roof has become a literary room, a study, and a bedroom. The great poet spent the early morning hours alone with the Muse. At the round table on the veranda, “Cliff”, “Dream”, “Oak Leaf”, “Prophet”, “I went out alone on the road ...” and other lines that became textbook today were born.
The mock of Fate: here Pyatigorsk was saying goodbye to the poet when he was killed in a duel. Since 1912, the first Russian literary and memorial museum of Lermontov has been organized here.